A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. However we don’t know for sure why the pantheon was built. It is flanked by two Corinthian columns of yellowish pink giallo antico marble from Tunisia. All the gods. Around the 7th century A.D., the pantheon was turned into a church.  Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site.  The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. The emperor Hadrian (A.D 117-138) built the Pantheon to replace Augustus' friend and Commander Marcus Agrippa's Pantheon of 27 B.C. Weddings are also held there from time to time. This occasioned the famous Pasquinade Quod non fecerunt Barberi, fecerunt Barberini (“What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did”). Unfortunately the original columns on these aedicules made of precious purple porphyry have been removed and replaced with shafts of rosso antico or gray granite. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes.  Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. It was no doubt chosen due to the fact that it can be carved in exquisite detail.  However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors, a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. Pantheon is a Greek word meaning “honor all Gods” so the building had special significance during the Roman Empire. The Pantheon, in greek, is the place where all the gods meet. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. Original temple built around 29-19BC by Marcus Agrippa Current temple built and dedicated by Emperor Hadrian in roughly 125 AD. Her relics were kept in the church, and were brought out for solemn processions when dangers threatened the city. Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. It was a rectangular building dedicated to all the Gods of the Greco-Roman Pantheon.  These were thought to be a 15th century replacement for the original, mainly because they were deemed by contemporary architects to be too small for the door frames. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. Built by Agrippa between 25 and 27 BC the Pantheon was a temple dedicated to the twelve Gods and to the living Sovran. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time (Oros. The Roman legend tells that the original Pantheon was built on the very site and was dedicated to Romulus, their mythological founder, after he ascended to heaven from that site. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/; Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Oculus of the Pantheon. Pantheon means "all gods," and though it's commonly thought the structure was a site of worship dedicated to Roman deities, its original purpose is … It was dedicated to 12 gods of heaven and focused on Augustus’ cult and Romans believed that Romulus ascended to heaven from this spot. Inside the large squares are circles which form diagonal rows in a subtle contrast to the major north-south axis of the building. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary.  On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. " However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. Scriptores Historiae Augustea, Hadrianus XIX. They would have corresponded to the second pediment visible on the front of the intermediate block. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. In fact the dimensions of these templates correspond to that of the original larger columns for the portico. Mary and the Martyrs,” commonly referred to as “Santa Maria Rotonda.” The reason it has been preserved so well is because of this conversion and its continuous use as a result of this. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. and been its image through the centuries. The same pieces of formwork could have been reused as new layers and sections of concrete were laid next to each other. We are two friends who play, love and are passionate about Hockey.  The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. The formwork would have been easier to move, to position precisely and to remove. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. The third niche holds the mortal remains – his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says – of the great artist Raphael. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. The central point of the Pantheon is far above visitors’ heads: the great eye, … It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. It was perhaps restored by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus on the orders of Trajan, but then demolished and completely rebuilt by Hadrian. An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.47 MPa (213 psi) for this specimen. , Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. ArcheoRoma is an organization for the promotion of tourism in Rome born with the aim of illustrating the archaeological and cultural heritage of the capital of Italy. The only local Italian stone in the original decorations of the Pantheon is the fine white marble from Carrara in Tuscany, which was used for the Corinthian capitals and the small pediments of the aedicules. 2. The name Pantheon means “Temple dedicated to all gods ”. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. As the brick stamps on the side of the building reveal it was built and dedicated between A.D 118 and 125. From the exit turn left to the Spanish Steps and walk along Via dei Condotti (the street that starts from the Barcaccia fountain at the bottom of the Spanish Steps). On the altar is a statue of St Joseph and the Holy Child by Vincenzo de' Rossi. The text uses the word “instauravit”, which indicates a restoration rather than a rebuilding. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. Pantheon: A cathedral dedicated to the martyrs - See 78,212 traveler reviews, 37,319 candid photos, and great deals for Rome, Italy, at Tripadvisor. Other artists and builders during the Italian Renaissa…  The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).. next to it towards the north, this second square would, 30.40 metres (external) 21.70 metres (internal), Octagonal Hall – Baths of Diocletian – Rome, It was merely restored by Hadrian (emperor from 117 to 138 AD), as stated in the. The term ‘pan’ means all and ‘theon’ means the gods in Greek. On 26 May 1929, this deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. Normally, temples were dedicated to one or two gods or, rarely, three gods.  It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. These templates were probably used for checking and shaping building materials that were brought to this site, after they were unloaded from nearby docks on the Tiber. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. The Pantheon was an ancient Roman Temple which has been converted into a church dedicated to “St. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. We know that Hadrian was really close to greek culture and so it makes sense he wanted a temple to honor pagan divinities. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church.  The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary. The above-mentioned relationship between the circle and the square, which underlies the basic geometry of the entire building, is also mirrored by the floor decorations that still maintain the original design (although much of the marble has either been replaced or relaid). The wall of the rotunda is 6 meters thick and is punctuated by seven deep niches or alcoves, the ceilings of which are supported by two Corinthian columns. It consisted of oblong gaps like small windows with three panels like little pilasters on either side, standing above a broad horizontal band of marble. Originally, the Pantheon was a Roman temple dedicated to worshipping the planetary gods (the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars) in Roman times. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Construction. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. As a result of excavations in the late 19th century, archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani concluded that Agrippa's Pantheon was oriented so that it faced south, in contrast with the current layout that faces north, and that it had a shortened T-shaped plan with the entrance at the base of the "T".  After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. , The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on; starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. A temple built to honor Zeus is an … The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze", that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof," and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. Discover the history of the monuments, itineraries, events and exhibitions related to archeology and cultural heritage in Rome. , The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.. , Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original, Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826). The Pantheon as we know it today was built in 120 AD by Empero… The church, originally dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was rededicated to Saint Genevieve, who became the patron saint of Paris. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit.  Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens. 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